There are two men with the same last name—Roswell Hart (1773-1824) and Romanta Hart (1800-1877)—who moved from Connecticut to Brighton, New York in the early Nineteenth Century. I am uncertain how they are related if, in fact, they are. Father-son? Uncle-nephew? They could be cousins or even siblings, despite being born a generation apart. Both remained in Brighton, where they died, but their children grew up and moved across the Genesee River into the Third Ward, often marrying children of our city’s Founding Families, acquiring great wealth and high social standing. When researching the second generation of our ward, the Harts are ever-present.
For some time, I have been curious about this family. Recently a man wrote to me through the Corn Hill website asking what I knew about the house at 199 South Plymouth on the southwest corner of Troup Street. It is known as the Hart-Wiltsie House. His grandmother had lived there in the 1960s and he was curious about its history. Last year, Cynthia Howk of the Landmark Society of Western New York sent me a 1936 photo of the house, urging me to use it in the Gazette. The time had come for me to learn more about that building and get into some serious Hart Family research. I immediately came across a news item in the Democrat and Chronicle, January 30, 1877, written by a witty Nineteenth Century copywriter.
“John Carroll, arrested for stealing two pairs of boots from Charles E. Hart, was examined in the police court yesterday. It is expected that during the next ninety days John will frequently wish himself in his neighbor’s shoes.”
I know nothing more about Mr. Carroll, but I can’t help wondering just where those boots might have traveled before the theft occurred. Charles Edward Hart was an adventurer and entrepreneur who speculated in mining and oil fields across the United States. In 1866 he moved into the aforementioned house that would remain in the family for the next 72 years.
Charles, first child of Romanta Hart and Ruth Cowles, was born in Brighton. Ruth’s parents, Sylvester Cowles and Sarah Northrup, came to the area from Berkshire County, Massachusetts at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century. A daughter was born in 1802, a year before Nathaniel Rochester purchased the One-Hundred-Acre Tract on the west bank of the Genesee. A second daughter arrived in 1804 but each of those girls survived for only a year. A son was born in 1805 and daughter Ruth came along in 1807, five years before the first lot was sold in Rochester’s Tract. One more child, a boy, would be born in 1814. By then, three years before Rochesterville was incorporated as a village, the population of Brighton was 2,860.
Sylvester Cowles died in 1825 and is buried in Brighton Cemetery. It is not known when Romanta Hart, born on March 19, 1800, at Hartford County, Connecticut, first arrived in Brighton but, thanks to the records of the Daughters of the American Revolution, we know he married Ruth Cowles in 1826. Charles was born on September 13, 1827.
In February of 1849, hearing reports that gold had been discovered in California, twenty-one-year-old Charles headed west and became part of that great wave of “forty-niners” seeking their fortune. According to his obituary, he worked in mining, farming and merchandising. One story says he was the first person to plant fruit trees along the shores of San Francisco Bay, trees imported from Rochester.
In 1858, Charles was back in Rochester, which by then had annexed portions of Brighton. He soon married Mary Elizabeth Potter, the daughter of Henry Sayre Potter, an early investor in the Western Union Telegraph Company and its first president. He is the “Potter” who once owned the Hoyt-Potter House where the Corn Hill Neighbors Association maintains its office.
The newlyweds moved to St. Louis, Missouri where Charles worked in real estate and their first child Harriet (Hattie) was born on March 6, 1860. The couple soon returned to Rochester where a son, Howard Mortimer, was born on September 22, 1861. Another girl, Mary, was born in 1864. During these years, the family was living on East Avenue.
Their move to the Third Ward came about in 1866 when Henry S. Potter gave the Plymouth house to his daughter, Mary Elizabeth Potter Hart. Within a year, the two-story house was enlarged to three floors, a square tower was added and mansard roofs covered the building to give it the Second Empire style we see today.
In November’s Gazette, I described the early adventures of Charles E. Hart as he went to California at the height of the Gold Rush, then returned to Rochester and married Mary Elizabeth Potter whose father, Henry, gave the couple a house that still stands at 199 South Plymouth Avenue. When the Harts moved into the home, city directories only stated the location—the corner of Plymouth and Troup. Not until 1875 did a house number appear, 61 Plymouth Avenue. In 1884, during citywide renumbering of Rochester houses, the number became 123. It changed to 199 in 1940. No distinction was made between north and south Plymouth until the 1931 directory.
Mr. Potter actually gave the house to his daughter. It was not uncommon for married couples to put their home in the wife’s name, especially if there was risk in the husband’s business that could result in bankruptcy or other lawsuits. If creditors went after his assets, the home would be protected.
It’s difficult to determine Charles Hart’s professional and financial success. Most records don’t even state his occupation. There are two exceptions. When he registered for the Civil War draft in 1863, he listed his occupation as “Gentleman.” The 1870 Federal Census describes him as an Oil Speculator. That same census record says that his wife, Mary Elizabeth owned $20,000 in real estate (including, no doubt, the Plymouth Avenue home) with a personal estate of $5,000.
In 1859, just ten years after the California Gold Rush that lured Hart to the west coast, oil was extracted from the earth at Titusville, a small village in the pine and hemlock forests of northwestern Pennsylvania. Everyone knew the oil was there, it oozed out of the ground and coated the surface of Oil Creek with an iridescent glow, but no one knew how to retrieve it. On August 28, a tall wooden derrick tapped into reserves deep underground and oil came bubbling to the surface. Commercially available at last, oil fields and refineries soon lined the Oil Creek Valley. By 1866, the village’s population of 250 people had grown to 10,000 and Titusville was incorporated as a city. A number of men became wealthy from that oil but none more so than John D. Rockefeller with his Standard Oil Company.
I know only slightly the role that Charles Hart served in the midst of this boom. It comes from these vague lines his obituary: “[H]e returned east [from St. Louis] to begin the most eventful period of his life which comprised fifteen years in drilling and operating wells in Western Pennsylvania. He became an expert in oil well matters and was involved in the business during the height of the oil excitement.”
Charles must have been away from home a lot even though city directories list him at the South Plymouth home during this period. In the 1870 census mentioned above, he and Mary are living with their three children Hattie E., age 10, born in Missouri, Howard M., 8, and Mary, 6, the last two born in New York. There are also two Domestic Servants, Susan Nellis, 16, born in New York and Mary Dalton, 25, born in Ireland. If Charles was as actively involved in the oil operations as the obituary suggests, he must have been gone for long periods, leaving Mary and two servants to care for house and children.
In 1879, again citing Hart’s obituary, “he became interested in mining in Colorado where he remained for about five years, but ill health compelled his return to Rochester.” Could he have been separated from his family for all those years? In December 1882, the Democrat and Chronicle published this brief report: “Messrs. Charles E. Hart and C. D. Tracy of this city, have located a very promising silver mining claim in the celebrated Lake Valley district, New Mexico….” It must have been shortly thereafter that his health began to fail.
In 1880, his father-in-law Henry S. Potter had named Charles as executor of his will. However, in August of 1883, Potter annulled that decision, “by reason of his impaired health and the character and locality of his business, it being so very remote and requiring his absence from this city to conduct it….” Potter died January 9, 1884.
(to be continued)